عنوان مقاله [English]
The discussion related to the phenomenon called "parables" is an old and extensive debate, and a review of classical sources shows that the ancients paid more attention and precision to the nature and construction of parables and provided more precise definitions. However, because in classical Islamic rhetoric, literary language is considered a particular and separate field from vernacular language and is separated from the vernacular language with terms such as "rhetoric", "eloquence", etc, the efforts of Islamic rhetoricians and also In the definition of a proverb, contemporary rhetoricians have been pushed in such a direction that the phenomenon of the proverb has been considered as something meta-rhetorical and their efforts to divide proverb have not led to a precise result. First, by reviewing the definitions of the past and contemporaries of the term parable, the article placed its types under the three expressive techniques of simile, metonymy, and metaphor, taking into account the simile structure, and identified the fourth category as wisdom, which does not have a simple structure. This result It has been reached that in terms of considering the allegorical infrastructure of all kinds of parables, something called a parable that has an infrastructure other than the infrastructure of simile, metonymy, and metaphor is only placed under the wisdom and does not include a parable. The reason for the emergence of the term proverb, which is considered to be something meta-rhetorical, is firstly due to the multi-conceptuality of the word "proverb," which conveys the meaning of other phrases and sentences, and then it is due to the focus of lexicographers on collecting other sentences, which always have two aspects. "Being different" and "the presence of implicit meaning" are essential and have been recorded. Investigations show that most of the entries in proverbs are phrases with the structure of metonymy, and the stories that have emerged around some of these entries, in most cases, are around the entries with the structure of metaphor.