عنوان مقاله [English]
"Satire" as one of the rhetorical figures and critical devices is considered as the most distinguishing feature of Hafez poetry. In addition to applying simple and comprehensible satire, Hafez sometimes uses complex and profound tricks for critical satire. In this method which corresponds to "Socratic irony", he humiliates himself like "Eiron" and attributes dishonor, shame and sin to himself so that to reveal the true nature of "Alazons" in his time (hypocrites, claimants of religion, and etc.). The main point is that as a dexterous cartoonist applies exaggeration and hyperbole in order to represent the "incompatible figur" of people well, for example if there is the slightest deviation in the eyes or mouth or other parts of the opposite party that deviation is displayed twice as much in the picture, in the same way Hafez uses his own specific hyperbole in order to reveal the true nature of his time "Alazons" in the existence of "Eiron". Therefore, Eiron in Hafez poetry is "drunkard", "Sodomite", "heretic ", "quitter of obligations"," hypocrite", "sentenced to several betrayals" and so on. According to studies conducted, it is concluded that Hafez applied certain roguish and artistic tricks including "feeble excuse", "reverse reason" and “committing a double sin" in order to achieve this goal.