عنوان مقاله [English]
Irony is one of the factors of the inadequacy and complexity of the text which in the Persian language is equivalent to satire and punishment, create balance and cohesion for the purpose of discipline and remembrance and it is necessary for any work of art. Muwlawi in mathnawi which is a didactic-mystical work in the form of wise stories, intend to educate and inform therefore irony has a widespread reflection on this allegoric work and it is possible to compare Muwlawi with Shakespeare in western literature. in this research, we study dramatic instance of irony in relation to ironic making elements including innocence unknowingly trust, laughter, contradiction of appearance with reality and demonstrative distance element to mystical issues such as endeavor, trust, patience, contentment and poverty. The ironic elements in Mathnawi include foolishness, ignorance of the truth and something seemingly truth instead of truth, fanaticism, duplicity, secularism, innocence, boastful and exorbitant based on claim, greed, flaw, and personal weakness on the soul and morality that cause human affliction. Muwlawi's narrative-allegoric expression in mathnawi making plat for dramatic irony with mild humor which has sign of naivety and insidious and puts the story on the border of humor and seriousness. The motif of ironic stories, apparently includes humor humiliating and vulnerability of story character, but in the spirit of the word, its mystical outcomes are understandable. Non-humorous works such as Rumi's spiritual Mathnavi and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh have dramatic irony because of the unexpected nature of story events. Considering the content of the text and its accurate studying is the best way to detect irony.